Cookies

This tutorial is compatible with hapi v17 and newer

  1. Overview
  2. Configuring the Server
    1. server.state()
    2. route.options.state()
  3. Setting a Cookie
    1. h.state()
  4. Overriding Options
  5. Getting a Cookie Value
  6. Clearing a Cookie

Overview

When writing a web application, cookies are often used to keep state about a user between requests. With hapi, cookies are flexible, secure, and simple to use.

Configuring the server

hapi has several configurable options when dealing with cookies. The defaults are probably good for most cases, but can be changed when needed. To prepare a cookie, you first need to name it and configure a list of options. You do this by calling server.state(name, [options]).

server.state()

To use a cookie, you first need to configure it by calling server.state(name, [options]) where name is the name of the cookie, and options is an object used to configure the cookie.

Please note that the default settings for options is good for most cases and don't need to be configured. For learning purposes, you will configure them in this tutorial:

server.state('data', {
    ttl: null,
    isSecure: true,
    isHttpOnly: true,
    encoding: 'base64json',
    clearInvalid: true,
    strictHeader: true
});

In the example above, you first name the cookie data. You then configure the options to customize the cookie.

The first option is ttl. This represents the cookies time to live in milliseconds. The default setting is null, which will delete the cookie once the browser is closed.

Next we have two flags, isSecure and isHttpOnly. For more info on these flags, see (RFC 6265, specifically sections 4.1.2.5 and 4.1.2.6.

You then tell hapi that the value is a base64 encoded JSON string.

By setting clearInvalid to true, it instructs the client to remove invalid cookies.

Last, you set strictHeader to true so that there are no violations of RFC 6265.

route.options.state()

In addition to this, you can further configure cookie behavior at a route-level by specifying two properties at the route's options.state object.

Please note that configurations to cookies on the route-level are in addition to those configurations made by server.state.

{
    options: {
        state: {
            parse: true,
            failAction: 'error'
        }
    }
}

The parse option determines if cookies are parsed and stored in request.state.

The failAction options determines how cookie parsing errors will be handled.

Setting a cookie

Setting a cookie is done via the response toolkit in a request handler, pre-requisite, or request lifecycle extension point.

h.state()

You set a cookie by calling h.state(name, value, [options]. In the following example, you set a cookie in a route handler:

server.route({
    method: 'GET',
    path: '/',
    handler: function (request, h) {

        h.state('data', { firstVisit: false });
        return h.response('Hello');
    }
});

In this example, you use the cookie we configured in the section above. Here, hapi will reply with the string Hello as well as set a cookie named data to a base64 encoded JSON string representation of { firstVisit: false }.

The state() method is also available on the response object which allows for convenient chaining. The above example can therefore also be written:

return h.response('Hello').state('data', { firstVisit: false });

Overriding options

When setting a cookie, you may also pass the same options available to server.state() as a third parameter, such as:

return h.response('Hello').state('data', 'test', { encoding: 'none' });

In this example the cookie will simply be set to the string "test" with no encoding.

Getting a cookie value

Access a cookie’s value via request.state in a route handler, pre-requisite, or request lifecycle extension point.

The request.state object contains the parsed HTTP state. Each key represents the cookie name and its value is the defined content.

The sample code uses the data cookie key from above where the related value is set to { firstVisit: false }:

const value = request.state.data;
// console.log(value) will give you { firstVisit : false }

Clearing a cookie

The cookie can be cleared by calling the unstate() method on the response toolkit or response object:

return h.response('Bye').unstate('data');

Here, you just pass the name of the cookie into unstate() to clear the cookie.